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Repubulika y'u Rwanda
République du Rwanda
Republic of Rwanda
Jamhuri ya Rwanda
Flag of Rwanda.svg Coat of arms of Rwanda.svg
Ibendera rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda Ikimenyetso mpamo cy’inyandiko za Leta y’u Rwanda

U Rwanda ni igihugu giherereye muri Afurika yo hagati mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, munsi y’Umurongo wa Koma y’isi. Umurwa mukuru w’u Rwanda witwa Kigali. Iki gihugu gikunze kwitwa icy'imisozi igihumbi gikoresha indimi eshatu: Ikinyarwanda, Igifaransa, Icyongereza. Ururimi rw’Igihugu ni Ikinyarwanda.

Ubutegetsi bw'u Rwanda burigenga, ubuyobozi bufite intego igamije guteza imbere abaturage, kandi imiyoborere y'igihugu ntabwo ishingiye ku idini.

Ibirango by’igihugu cy’u Rwanda ni inkingi, ikimenyetso mpamo cy’inyandiko z' ubuyobozi, intego n’indirimbo y’Igihugu.

Intego y'Umutegetsi ni Ubumwe, Umurimo, Gukunda Igihugu.

Indirimbo y’Igihugu ni Rwanda Nziza.

Contents

"Ubumenyi bw'isi"Edit

Ni igihugu kidakora ku nyanja, kiri muri Afurika yo hagati mu karere bita ak’ibiyaga bigari. U Rwanda rufite ibirunga bitanu, ibiyaga makumyabiri na bitatu n’imigezi myinshi, imwe akaba ariyo soko y’uruzi rwa Nil. U Rwanda rufite ubuso bwa 26,338 km² ubutaka bukaba bwihariye 24,948 km² amazi agafata 1,390 km². Abaturage babarirwa hafi ya 11,533,446 (National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, 2016), ubwo rero ni abantu 438 kuri buri km², u Rwanda rubarirwa mu bihugu bituwe cyane kurusha ibindi muri Afurika.

Imipaka n’ibihugu by’ibituranyi bikurikira ni 893 km: Burundi mu majyepfo (290km), Tanzania mu burasirazuba (217km), Uganda mu majyaruguru(169km) na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo (217km). U Rwanda rufite ibihe by’imvura bibiri Itumba-kuva Gashyantare kugera muri Gicurasi, Umuhindi-kuva muri Nzeli kugera muri Mutarama. Mu misozi ibihe biri mu rugero hajya haba ubutita rimwe na rimwe hakaza n’urubura rw’imbonekarimwe.

Igihugu gifite imiterere y’ubutaka itandukanye yiganjemo ibirunga mu majyaruguru kikaba gikikijwe n’ikiyaga cya Kivu mu burengerazuba. Parike National y’ibirunga iri mu birunga mu misozi miremire n’amashyamba biri mu majyaruguru, iyo pariki ifite ingangi zizwi cyane kw’isi nk'inyamaswa nini cyane zizwi ku kwita ku miryango yazo. Hari inyamaswa nini n’into, naho ikiyaga cya Kivu mu burengerazuba kikaba gifite umusenyi mwiza mu nkengero zacyo ku Kibuye, Kivu ikaba itatswe n’uturwa twinshi. Ahantu ha mbere haciye bugufi mu Rwanda ni mu kibaya cya Rusizi kikaba kiri ku butumburuke bwa metero 950 uhereye ku nyanja. Naho ahantu harehare cyane gusumba ahandi ni ikirunga cya Kalisimbi gifite ubutumburuke bwa metero 4,519.

Pariki NasiyonaliEdit

IntaraEdit

Igihugu cy’u Rwanda kigabanyijemo intara 4 n’Umujyi wa Kigali. Intara zigabanyijemo uturere, imijyi, imirenge n’utugari. Umujyi wa Kigali ugabanyijemo uturere 3, imirenge n’utugari.

Kugeza muri 2005, U Rwanda rwari rugabanyijemo intara cumi n’ebyiri (12) na Komini ijana na cumi n’esheshatu (116). Izi zari: Umujyi wa Kigali,9 Intara ya Kigali Ngali,10 Intara ya Gitarama,11 Intara ya Butare,12 Intara ya Gikongoro,13 Intara ya Cyangugu,14 Intara ya Kibuye,15 Intara ya Gisenyi,16 Intara ya Ruhengeri,17 Intara ya Byumba,18 Intara y’Umutara,19 Intara ya Kibungo.

Ariko ibi byarahindutse kuva ku itariki ya 1 Mutarama 2006. Muri porogaramu yo kwegereza ubuyobozi abaturage no kuvugurura ubutegetsi muri rusange mu gihugu, ubutegetsi bwite bwa leta bwagabanyijwe mu matsinda matoya u Rwanda 13rugabanywamo intara eshanu (5) zagabanyijwemo nazo uturere mirongo itatu (30). Uturere natwo tugabanyijwemo imirenge Magana ane na cumi n’itandatu (416) n’utugali ibihumbi bibiri n’ijana mirongo ine n’umunani (2148). Igihugu cy’u Rwanda kigabanyijemo Intara enye ( 4) n’Umujyi wa Kigali.

Amazina, umubare n’ibyicaro by’Intara n’iby’Umujyi wa Kigali bigaragara mu mbonerahamwe ikurikira:

 
Intara n’Uturere
Izina Icyicaro Akarere karimo icyicaro
1 Intara y’Amajyaruguru Kinihira Akarere ka Rulindo
2 Intara y’Amajyepfo Busasamana Akarere ka Nyanza
3 Intara y’Iburasirazuba Kigabiro Akarere ka Rwamagana
4 Intara y’Uburengerazuba Bwishyura Akarere ka Karongi
5 Umujyi wa Kigali Nyarugenge Akarere ka Nyarugenge
 
Volcans National Park

IyobokamanaEdit

Abanyarwanda benshi ni abayoboke b’amadini 2 akomeye ariyo Ubukirisitu (Abagatolika, Abaporoso, Abapresibuteliyani n’abangilikani) n’ubuyislamu.

Aya madini niyo shingiro ry’abemera Imana kuva mu gihe cy’ubukoloni. Ikindi kigaragara ni uko abenshi batumva ukuntu wamenya Imana n’umugambi idufiteho utari muri aya madini yavuzwe haruguru.

Kiliziya cyane cyane Kiliziya Gatolika niyo yashinze imizi mu Rwanda. Abanyarwanda benshi ni abagatolika. Rero Kiliziya ifite uruhare runini mu buzima bwa buri munsi. Hari andi madini nayo y’abakirisitu mu Rwanda, ariko ntabwo akomeye nka Kiliziya Gatorika. Iri dini niryo rya mbere ryinjiye mu Rwanda riyobowe na Musenyeri Hirth wo mu muryango w’Abapadiri bera27mu w’1900. abapadiri bera bazanywe mu Rwanda n’abadage, bayobora icyo gihe bategekaga u Rwanda, u Burundi na tanzaniya y’icyo gihe. Abadage barindaga abapadiri bera bizera ko naho bazashyigikira ubutegetsi bw’Abadage (irohat) mu Rwanda.

Ibarura ry’abaturage rya 2002 ryagaragaje ko amadini ahagaze mu buryo bukurikira muri iki gihe: Abagatolika (49,5%), Abaporotesitanti bari mu madini atandukanye (27,2%), Abadivantisite (12,2%); Andi madini ya gikirisito (4%), Abatagira idini (3,6%) n’Abayisilamu (1,8%), indi myemerere 1,7%. Iri barura riragaragaza ko 98,3% by abatuye u Rwanda biyemerera ko bafite idini babarizwamo. Ibi biratwereka ko amadini ari rumwe mu nzego z’imiyoborere ihuza abantu benshi kuko amenshi muri ayo madini atandukanye cyane n’idini gakondo kuko yo ahuza abayoboke bayo kandi akabaha gahunda y’imitekerereze ndetse n’imyitwarire. [1]

Ibendera rya Repubulika y’u RwandaEdit

Ibendera ry’Igihugu rigizwe n’amabara atatu: icyatsi kibisi, umuhondo, n’ubururu.

Ubukungu bw’u RwandaEdit

Ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bugizwe ahanini n’ubuhinzi abenshi mu bahinzi batunzwe n’ibyo bahinga. Ubukungu bukaba buhura n’icyibazo cy’uko abantu ari benshi kurusha ubutaka buhari. Kuba u Rwanda rudakora ku nyanjya bikaba byongera ibyo bibazo kubera ko bituma igihugu kitagera ku masoko mpuzamahanga cyangwa kibagerayo bigoranye. Ibihingwa ngengabukungu bya mbere ni ikawa, icyayi n’ibireti. Ibi n’ibyamasoko mpuzamahanga. Mu gihugu, ibihingwa bihaboneka muri byo ni ibitoki, imyumbati, amasaka, imboga, n’ibirayi. Ariko ntibihagije ku isoko ryo mu Rwanda ibindi bitumizwa mu mahanga. Ibindi byongera ku ntungamubiri ku banyarwanda ni amatungo- inka, ihene n’intama. [2]

Ubutegetsi bwite bw’igihuguEdit

Muri politiki, u Rwanda rwayoborwaga n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye mbere yuko rukolonizwa n’Ababirigi kugeza rubonye ubwigenge ku itariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1962. Ni repubulika iyoborwa na perezida ikaba ikanagendera kuri demokarasi y’amashyaka menshi. Itegekonshinga rishya ryemejwe ku itariki ya 26 Gicurasi 2003. Umukuru w’Igihugu ni Perezida Paul Kagame naho Umukuru wa Guverinoma ni Minisitiri w’Intebe Édouard Ngirente. Guverinoma ishyirwaho na Perezida.

Amashyaka ya PolitikiEdit

 
Paul Kagame

U Rwanda ni igihugu kigendera kuri demokarasi y’amashyaka menshi.

Amashyaka ya politike mu gihugu n’abayayobora ni aya: Parti Démocratique Chrétien (PDC) iyobowe na Alfred Mukezamfura ; Parti Social Démocratique (PSD) iyobowe na Vincent Biruta ; Union Démocratique du Peuple Rwandais (UDPR) iyobowe na Adrien Rangira ; Mouvement Démocratique Républicain (MDR) yasheshwe ikaba yarayoborwaga na Kabanda Célestin ; Parti Démocratique Islamique (PDI) iyobowe na André Bumaya ; Parti Libéral (PL) iyobowe na Prosper Higiro ; na Front Patriotique Rwandais (FPR) iyobowe na Paul Kagame.

Hari n’andi mashyaka yahagaritswe kubera ko atemewe n’amategekop. Ayo ni Parti Socialiste Rwandais (PSR), na Parti pour le Progres et la Concorde (PPC) na Parti pour le Renouveau Démocratique

Amashyaka yo mu wa 1959Edit

Ayo mashyaka ari ukubiri: hari ayo bamwe bita "partis nationaux", ni ukuvuga amashyaka yari afite abayoboke benshi, yari asakaye mu gihugu cyangwa mu duce tunini, akagira n'uburyo bugaragara bwo kwamamaza ibitekerezo byayo n'abayobozi batwaye bagaragara. Tuvuge ayo mashyaka ayo ari yo n'igihe yavukiye: [3]

1. APROSOMA Association pour la Promotion Sociale de la Masse 15/02/1959
2. UNAR Union Nationale Rwandaise 13/09/1959
3. RADER Rassemblement Democratique Rwandaise 14/09/1959
4. PARMEHUTU Parti du Mouvement de l’Emancipation des Bahutu 09/10/1959

Hari n'andi mashyaka akabakaba makumyabiri ataragize uburemere byayo tumaze kuvuga. Ndetse urebye neza, amwe n'amwe muri ayo mashyaka mato yegamiye ayo ane manini. Ayo mashyaka matoya ni aya:

1) ABAKI Alliance des Bakiga
2) ABESC Association des Bahutu evuluant pour la suppression des castes
3) ACR Association des Cultivateurs du Rwanda
4) APADEC Association du Parti Democrate Chretien
5) APROCOMIN Association des Commerçants Indigenes
6) AREDETWA Association pour le Relevement Democratique des Batwa
7) ARUCO Alliance du Ruanda - Urundi et du Congo
8) ASSERU Association des Eleveurs du Rwanda
9) MOMOR Mouvement Monarchiste Rwandais
10) MUR Mouvement pour 1'Union Rwandaise
11) PAMOPRO Parti Monarchiste Progressiste
12) PSCR Parti Social Chrétien du Rwanda
13) UAARU Union des Aborozi Africains du Rwanda
14) UMAR Union des Masses Rwandaises
15) UNAFREUROP Union Afro-Europeenne
16) UNINTERCOKI Union des Intérêts Communs du Kinyaga

Edit

AmabankiEdit

  • Banque de Kigali (BK)
  • Banque Rwandaise de Développement (BRD)
  • I&M bank Rwanda
  • Compagnie Générale de Banque (COGEBANQUE)
  • Banque Commerciale du Rwanda (BCR)
  • ECOBANK RWANDA
  • Banque de l'Habitat du Rwanda (BHR)
  • Banque Populaire du Rwanda (BPR)
  • Urwego Opportunity Microfinance Bank (UOMB)
  • BANCOR SA
  • Banque Populaire du Rwanda SA
  • Kenya commercial bank (KCB)

Sosiyete Sivile mu RwandaEdit

 
OLPC classroom teaching

Iki gice kiraganira kuri sosiyete sivile yo mu Rwanda, ariko irashimangira ku mateka yayo, uko iteye, n’amashami yayo aba mu Rwanda. Iki igce karanagaragaza imibereho ya sosiyete sivile, imigenderane ifitanye na leta yu urwanda ndetse n’abaterenkunga, ingorane ihura nazo. Iki gice imbogamizi uwo muryango uhura nazo.

Urebye ibibazo uyu muryango uhura nabyo mu byerekeye kumvisha akamaro kawo, ni umuryango w’ubukorerabushake ufata umwanya hagati y’umuryango nyarwanda na leta. Hari amashyirahamwe atandukanye yigenga, yashizweho n’abantu ku giti cyabo kugira ngo babungabunge amahame n’imico yabo.

Ubundi inshingano z’uwo muryango ni kuwinjizamwo imiryango y’abakozi bo mu nzego zose, baba abunganira (avocats), za kiriziya, koperative, amashirahamwe y’abana n’abagore n’andi mashirahamwe ashinzwe imibereho myiza y’abaturage. [4]

NotesEdit

ImiyoboroEdit