Tanzaniya

Tanzaniya cyangwa Repubulika Yunze Ubumwe ya Tanzaniya (izina mu giswayili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ; izina mu cyongereza : United Republic of Tanzania ) n’igihugu muri Afurika y'iburasirazuba. Umujyi mukuru wa Tanzaniya witwa Dodoma. Tanzaniya (/ ˌtænzəˈniːə /, [14] [15] [icyitonderwa 2] Igiswahiri: Agace k'ibiyaga bigari. Irahana imbibi na Uganda mu majyaruguru; Kenya mu majyaruguru y'uburasirazuba; Ibirwa bya Comoro n'Inyanja y'Ubuhinde mu burasirazuba; Mozambique na Malawi mu majyepfo; Zambiya mu majyepfo y'uburengerazuba; n'u Rwanda, u Burundi, na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo mu burengerazuba. Umusozi wa Kilimanjaro, umusozi muremure wa Afurika, uri mu majyaruguru y'uburasirazuba bwa Tanzaniya.

Ibendera rya Tanzaniya
Coat of arms of Tanzania.svg
Ikarita ya Tanzaniya

Ibisigazwa byinshi by’ibinyabuzima byavumbuwe muri Tanzaniya, nk’ibinyabuzima bya Pliocene bimaze imyaka miriyoni 6. Ubwoko bwa Australopithecus bwabaye muri Afrika yose hashize imyaka 4 kugeza kuri 2; n'ibisigazwa bya kera cyane byo mu bwoko bwa Homo tubisanga hafi y'Ikiyaga cya Olduvai. Nyuma yo kuzamuka kwa Homo erectus mu myaka miriyoni 1.8 ishize, ikiremwamuntu cyakwirakwiriye ku Isi Kera, nyuma mu Isi Nshya na Ositaraliya munsi y’ubwoko bwa Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens nayo yarengeje Afurika kandi ikurura ubwoko bwa kera bwakera nubwoko bwikiremwamuntu. Amwe mu moko ya kera azwi akiriho, Hadzabe, asa nkaho yakomotse muri Tanzaniya, kandi amateka yabo yo mu kanwa aributsa abakurambere bari barebare kandi babaye aba mbere mu gukoresha umuriro, imiti, kandi babaga mu buvumo, nka Homo erectus cyangwa Homo heidelbergensis wabaga mu karere kamwe mbere yabo.

Nyuma mu gihe cy'Amabuye na Bronze, abimukira mbere ya kera muri Tanzaniya barimo abavuga Cushitike y'Amajyepfo bimukiye mu majyepfo bava muri Etiyopiya y'ubu; na Nilote y'Amajyepfo, harimo na Datoog, wakomotse mu karere gahana imbibi na Sudani y'Amajyepfo na Etiyopiya hagati y’imyaka 2.900 na 2.400 ishize. [16]: urupapuro rwa 18 Izi ngendo zabaye mu gihe kimwe no gutura kwa Mashariki. Bantu ukomoka muri Afrika yuburengerazuba mu kiyaga cya Victoria no mu kiyaga cya Tanganyika. Nyuma yaho bimukiye mu bindi bihugu bya Tanzaniya hagati yimyaka 2.300 na 1.700 ishize. [16]

Ubutegetsi bw'Abadage bwatangiriye ku mugabane wa Tanzaniya mu mpera z'ikinyejana cya 19 igihe Ubudage bwashingaga Afurika y'Uburasirazuba bw'Ubudage. Ibyo byakurikiwe n’ubutegetsi bw’Abongereza nyuma y’Intambara ya Mbere y'Isi Yose, umugabane w’igihugu wategekwaga nka Tanganyika, hamwe na Archipelago ya Zanzibar hasigaye ububasha bw’abakoloni. Nyuma y'ubwigenge bwabo mu 1961 na 1963, izo nzego zombi zishyize hamwe mu 1964 zishyiraho Repubulika yunze ubumwe ya Tanzaniya. Ibihugu byari byinjiye mu muryango w’Ubwongereza mu 1961 kandi Tanzaniya iracyari umunyamuryango wa Commonwealth nka repubulika imwe.

Umuryango w'abibumbye wavuze ko abaturage ba Tanzaniya mu mwaka wa 2018 bagera kuri miliyoni 56.31, ukaba ari muto ugereranije na Afurika y'Epfo, bityo kikaba igihugu cya kabiri gituwe cyane giherereye mu majyepfo ya Ekwateri. [7] Abaturage bagizwe n’amoko agera ku 120, [20] y’indimi, n’amadini. Igihugu cyigenga cya Tanzaniya ni repubulika ishingiye ku itegekonshinga rya perezida kandi kuva mu 1996 umurwa mukuru wacyo ni Dodoma aho ibiro bya perezida, Inteko ishinga amategeko, na minisiteri zimwe na zimwe biherereye. Dar es Salaam, ahahoze ari umurwa mukuru, igumana ibiro byinshi bya leta kandi niwo mujyi munini mu gihugu, icyambu gikuru, ndetse n’ikigo cy’ubucuruzi kiyoboye. [18] [22] [23] Tanzaniya ni igihugu cy’ishyaka rimwe gifite ishyaka rya demokarasi Chama Cha Mapinduzi ku butegetsi.

Tanzaniya ni imisozi kandi ifite amashyamba menshi mu majyaruguru y'uburasirazuba, aho umusozi wa Kilimanjaro uherereye. Bitatu mu biyaga bigari bya Afurika biri muri Tanzaniya. Mu majyaruguru no mu burengerazuba hari ikiyaga kinini cya Afurika, ikiyaga kinini cya Afurika, n'ikiyaga cya Tanganyika, ikiyaga kinini cyane cyo ku mugabane wa Afurika, kizwiho amoko yihariye y'amafi. Mu majyepfo hari ikiyaga cya Malawi. Inkombe y'iburasirazuba irashyushye kandi itoshye, hamwe na Zanzibar Archipelago ku nkombe gusa. Agace ko kubungabunga Menai Bay ni agace kanini ka Zanzibar karinzwe. Isumo rya Kalambo, riherereye ku mugezi wa Kalambo ku mupaka wa Zambiya, ni isumo rya kabiri ridasubirwaho muri Afurika.

Ubukirisitu ni ryo dini rinini muri Tanzaniya, ariko kandi hari umubare munini w'Abayisilamu n'Aba Animiste. Indimi zirenga 100 zivugwa muri Tanzaniya, kikaba igihugu gitandukanye cyane mu ndimi muri Afurika y'Iburasirazuba. Igihugu ntigifite ururimi rwemewe, [27] nubwo ururimi rwigihugu ari Igiswahiri. Igiswahiri gikoreshwa mu mpaka z’abadepite, mu nkiko zo hasi, no mu rwego rwo kwigisha mu mashuri abanza. Icyongereza gikoreshwa mu bucuruzi bw’amahanga, muri diplomasi, mu nkiko zisumbuye, no mu rwego rwo kwigisha mu mashuri yisumbuye ndetse n’ayisumbuye, [26] nubwo guverinoma ya Tanzaniya iteganya guhagarika icyongereza nkururimi rwibanze rw’inyigisho ariko bizaboneka nk amasomo atabishaka. Abagera kuri 10 ku ijana by'Abanyatanzaniya bavuga Igiswahiri nk'ururimi rwa mbere, naho abagera kuri 90 ku ijana bavuga ururimi rwa kabiri.

Dar es salaam City
Bank of Tanzania golden hour
Anglican Cathedral of Holy Spirit in Dodoma


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